L-Tryptophan is an essential amino acid required for protein synthesis. It undergoes an extensive and complex metabolism along several pathways, resulting in many bioactive molecules acting in various organs through different action mechanisms. Enzymes involved in its metabolism, metabolites themselves, or their receptors, represent potential therapeutic targets, which are the subject of dynamic research. Disruptions in L-tryptophan metabolism are reported in several neurological, metabolic, psychiatric, and intestinal disorders, paving the way to develop drugs to target it. This review will briefly describe L-tryptophan metabolism and present and discuss the most recent pharmacological developments targeting it.