In the gut ecosystem, microorganisms regulate group behaviour and interplay with the host via a molecular system called quorum sensing (QS). The QS molecule 3-oxo-C12:2-HSL, first identified in human gut microbiota, exerts anti-inflammatory effects and could play a role in inflammatory bowel diseases where dysbiosis has been described. Our aim was to identify which signalling pathways are involved in this effect. We observed that 3-oxo-C12:2-HSL decreases expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukine-1beta (- 35%) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNFalpha) (- 40%) by stimulated immune RAW264.7 cells and decreased TNF secretion by stimulated PBMC in a dose-dependent manner, between 25 to 100 microM. Transcriptomic analysis of RAW264.7 cells exposed to 3-oxo-C12:2-HSL, in a pro-inflammatory context, highlighted JAK-STAT, NF-kappaB and TFN signalling pathways and we confirmed that 3-oxo-C12:2-HSL inhibited JAK1 and STAT1 phosphorylation. We also showed through a screening assay that 3-oxo-C12:2-HSL interacted with several human bitter taste receptors. Its anti-inflammatory effect involved TAS2R38 as shown by pharmacologic inhibition and led to an increase in intracellular calcium levels. We thus unravelled the involvement of several cellular pathways in the anti-inflammatory effects exerted by the QS molecule 3-oxo-C12:2-HSL.