Metabolic disorders represent a growing worldwide health challenge due to their dramatically increasing prevalence. The gut microbiota is a crucial actor that can interact with the host by the production of a diverse reservoir of metabolites, from exogenous dietary substrates or endogenous host compounds. Metabolic disorders are associated with alterations in the composition and function of the gut microbiota. Specific classes of microbiota-derived metabolites, notably bile acids, short-chain fatty acids, branched-chain amino acids, trimethylamine N-oxide, tryptophan and indole derivatives, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders. This review aims to define the key classes of microbiota-derived metabolites that are altered in metabolic diseases and their role in pathogenesis. They represent potential biomarkers for early diagnosis and prognosis as well as promising targets for the development of novel therapeutic tools for metabolic disorders.