Increasing knowledge in IGF1R defects: lessons from 35 new patients (Équipe Netchine)

07 - Octobre - 2019

Éloïse Giabicani, Marjolaine Willems, Virginie Steunou, Sandra Chantot-Bastaraud, Nathalie Thibaud, Walid Abi Habib, Salah Azzi, Bich Lam, Laurence Bérard, Hélène Bony-Trifunovic, Cécile Brachet, Élise Brischoux-Boucher, Emmanuelle Caldagues, Régis Coutant, Marie-Laure Cuvelier, Georges Gelwane, Isabelle Guemas, Muriel Houang, Bertrand Isidor, Claire Jeandel, James Lespinasse, Catherine Naud-Saudreau, Monique Jesuran-Perelroizen, Laurence Perrin, Juliette Piard, Claire Sechter, Pierre-Francois S

J Med Genet. 2019

Background: The type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) is a keystone of fetal growth regulation by mediating the effects of IGF-I and IGF-II. Recently, a cohort of patients carrying an IGF1R defect was described, from which a clinical score was established for diagnosis. We assessed this score in a large cohort of patients with identified IGF1R defects, as no external validation was available. Furthermore, we aimed to develop a functional test to allow the classification of variants of unknown significance (VUS) in vitro.

Methods: DNA was tested for either deletions or single nucleotide variant (SNV) and the phosphorylation of downstream pathways studied after stimulation with IGF-I by western blot analysis of fibroblast of nine patients.

Results: We detected 21 IGF1R defects in 35 patients, including 8 deletions and 10 heterozygous, 1 homozygous and 1 compound-heterozygous SNVs. The main clinical characteristics of these patients were being born small for gestational age (90.9%), short stature (88.2%) and microcephaly (74.1%). Feeding difficulties and varying degrees of developmental delay were highly prevalent (54.5%). There were no differences in phenotypes between patients with deletions and SNVs of IGF1R. Functional studies showed that the SNVs tested were associated with decreased AKT phosphorylation.

Conclusion: We report eight new pathogenic variants of IGF1R and an original case with a homozygous SNV. We found the recently proposed clinical score to be accurate for the diagnosis of IGF1R defects with a sensitivity of 95.2%. We developed an efficient functional test to assess the pathogenicity of SNVs, which is useful, especially for VUS.

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