Humans share a core intestinal microbiome and yet human microbiome differs by genes, species, enterotypes (ecology), and gene count (microbial diversity). Achievement of microbiota metagenomic analysis has revealed that the microbiome gene count is a key stratifier of health in several immune disorders and clinical conditions. We review here the progress of the metagenomic pipeline analysis, and how this has allowed us to define the host-microbe symbiosis associated with a healthy status. The link between host-microbe symbiosis disruption, the so-called dysbiosis and chronic diseases or iatrogenic conditions is highlighted. Finally, opportunities to use microbiota modulation, with specific nutrients and/or live microbes, as a target for personalized nutrition and therapy for the maintenance, preservation, or restoration of host-microbe symbiosis are discussed.