WISP1 (Wnt1-inducible signaling pathway protein-1, also known as CCN4) is a member of the CCN family able to mediate cell growth, transformation and survival in a tissue-specific manner. Here, we report that WISP1 expression was highly increased in preadipocytes and decreased during adipocyte differentiation. Moreover, we observed an increase in WISP1 gene expression in adipose tissue from both diet-induced and leptin-deficient ob/ob obese mice, suggesting that WISP1 could be involved in the pathophysiological onset of obesity. Interestingly, overexpression of WISP1 in 3T3-F442A cells prevented adipocyte differentiation via downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) transcriptional activity thereby attenuating the expression of adipogenic markers. Conversely, silencing of WISP1 enhanced adipocyte differentiation. We further show that the inactivation of PPARγ transcriptional activity was mediated, at least in part, by a direct physical association between WISP1 and PPARγ, followed by proteasome-dependent degradation of PPARγ. These results suggest for the first time that WISP1 interacts with PPARγ and that this interaction results in the inhibition of PPARγ activity. Taken together our results suggest that WISP1 functions as a negative regulator of adipogenesis.